The term has recently been revived in the forms Heathenry and Heathenism often but not always capitalized , as alternative names for the Germanic neopagan movement, adherents of which may self-identify as Heathens. It is perhaps misleading even to say that there was such a religion as paganism at the beginning of [the Common Era] It might be less confusing to say that the pagans, before their competition with Christianity, had no religion at all in the sense in which that word is normally used today.
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They had no tradition of discourse about ritual or religious matters apart from philosophical debate or antiquarian treatise , no organized system of beliefs to which they were asked to commit themselves, no authority-structure peculiar to the religious area, above all no commitment to a particular group of people or set of ideas other than their family and political context.
If this is the right view of pagan life, it follows that we should look on paganism quite simply as a religion invented in the course of the second to third centuries AD, in competition and interaction with Christians, Jews and others. Defining paganism is problematic. Understanding the context of its associated terminology is important.
Not all pagans were strictly polytheist. Throughout history, many of them believed in a supreme deity. Those who did not polytheist, monotheist, or atheist were outsiders to the Church and thus pagan. They would have considered the priestly colleges such as the College of Pontiffs or Epulones and cult practices more meaningful distinctions. Referring to paganism as pre-Christian indigenous religions is equally untenable.
Not all historical pagan traditions were pre-Christian or indigenous to their places of worship. Owing to the history of its nomenclature, paganism traditionally encompasses the collective pre- and non-Christian cultures in and around the classical world ; including those of the Greco-Roman, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic tribes.
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Paganism came to be equated by Christians with a sense of hedonism, representing those who are sensual, materialistic, self-indulgent, unconcerned with the future, and uninterested in more mainstream religions. Pagans were usually described within this worldly stereotype , especially among those drawing attention to what they perceived as the limitations of paganism. Chesterton wrote: "The pagan set out, with admirable sense, to enjoy himself. By the end of his civilization he had discovered that a man cannot enjoy himself and continue to enjoy anything else.
Ludwig Feuerbach defined the paganism of classical antiquity , which he termed Heidentum 'heathenry' as "the unity of religion and politics, of spirit and nature, of god and man",  qualified by the observation that man in the pagan view is always defined by ethnicity , i. Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Jew, etc.
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Modern historians define paganism instead as the aggregate of cult acts, set within a civic rather than a national context, without a written creed or sense of orthodoxy. The developments in the religious thought of the far-flung Roman Empire during Late Antiquity need to be addressed separately, because this is the context in which Early Christianity itself developed as one of several monotheistic cults, and it was in this period that the concept of pagan developed in the first place.
As Christianity emerged from Second Temple Judaism or Hellenistic Judaism , it stood in competition with other religions advocating pagan monotheism, including the cults of Dionysus ,  Neoplatonism , Mithraism , Gnosticism , and Manichaeanism. They point to the symbolism of wine and the importance it held in the mythology surrounding both Dionysus and Jesus Christ;   Wick argues that the use of wine symbolism in the Gospel of John , including the story of the Marriage at Cana at which Jesus turns water into wine, was intended to show Jesus as superior to Dionysus.
Arabic paganism gradually disappeared during Muhammad 's era through Islamization. Dhul Khalasa is referred to as both an idol and a temple, and it was known by some as the Ka'ba of Yemen, built and worshipped by pagan tribes. Interest in pagan traditions was first revived during the Renaissance , when Renaissance magic was practiced as a revival of Greco-Roman magic. In the 17th century, the description of paganism turned from the theological aspect to the ethnological one, and religions began to be understood as a part of the ethnic identities of peoples, and the study of the religions of so-called primitive peoples triggered questions as to the ultimate historical origin of religion.
Thus, Nicolas Fabri de Peiresc saw the pagan religions of Africa of his day as relics that were in principle capable of shedding light on the historical paganism of Classical Antiquity. Paganism resurfaces as a topic of fascination in 18th to 19th-century Romanticism , in particular in the context of the literary Celtic and Viking revivals, which portrayed historical Celtic and Germanic polytheists as noble savages.
The 19th century also saw much scholarly interest in the reconstruction of pagan mythology from folklore or fairy tales. The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.
Romanticist interest in non-classical antiquity coincided with the rise of Romantic nationalism and the rise of the nation state in the context of the revolutions , leading to the creation of national epics and national myths for the various newly formed states. Pagan or folkloric topics were also common in the musical nationalism of the period.
Modern paganism , or neopaganism, includes reconstructed religions such as Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism , Hellenism , Slavic Native Faith , Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism , or heathenry , as well as modern eclectic traditions such as Wicca and its many offshoots, Neo-Druidism , and Discordianism. However, there often exists a distinction or separation between some polytheistic reconstructionists such as Hellenism and revivalist neopagans like Wiccans. The divide is over numerous issues such as the importance of accurate orthopraxy according to ancient sources available, the use and concept of magic, which calendar to use and which holidays to observe, as well as the use of the term pagan itself.
Many of the revivals, Wicca and Neo-Druidism in particular, have their roots in 19th century Romanticism and retain noticeable elements of occultism or Theosophy that were current then, setting them apart from historical rural paganus folk religion. Most modern pagans, however, believe in the divine character of the natural world and paganism is often described as an Earth religion. There are a number of neopagan authors who have examined the relation of the 20th-century movements of polytheistic revival with historical polytheism on one hand and contemporary traditions of folk religion on the other.
Isaac Bonewits introduced a terminology to make this distinction. Prudence Jones and Nigel Pennick in their A History of Pagan Europe classify pagan religions as characterized by the following traits:. In modern times, Heathen and Heathenry are increasingly used to refer to those branches of neopaganism inspired by the pre-Christian religions of the Germanic, Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon peoples.
In Lithuania , many people practice Romuva , a revived version of the pre-Christian religion of that country. Lithuania was among the last areas of Europe to be Christianized. Odinism has been established on a formal basis in Australia since at least the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pagan disambiguation. Further information: Pagus.
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Further information: Hellenes religion. Further information: Decline of Hellenistic paganism and Hellenic philosophy and Christianity. See also: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. Main article: Modern paganism. Further information: Christianization. Harvard University Press. Between Pagan and Christian. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Paganism: A Very Short Introduction.
Definition of Paganism
Oxford University Press. Brill Academic Publishers. New York: Oxford University Press. The Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 July Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius. University of California Press.
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It shaped the way they tried and tested Christians. Thus the mosaic helps to substantiate the existence of Pagan monotheism. Ein Beitrag zur Kontextualisierung des Johannesevangeliums". Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. Retrieved 10 October With new translations of ancient texts by Herbert M. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, By Ibn Sa'd, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. Forgotten Books. Salibi, Kamal Who Was Jesus?
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